Tony Morbin | December 22, 2017

Predictions A - Z for 2018 - Dystopian or Utopian dawn?

Happy New Year! SC Media UK resumes news reporting on 2 Jan 2018. During the break, catch up on our experts' predictions for a range of positive and negative futures, from the impacts of AI to likely new Zero days.

After trawling through more predictions than you'd predict we'd ever get, here's a long-list to peruse through during the Christmas and New Year holidays, even if only to sense check your own gut feelings about the year ahead.  

A main theme for 2018 is automation - for good or ill.  Cyber-inflicted fatalities and AI induced mass unemployment are weighed against freedom from repetition and a speed and intelligence of response beyond anything we have now to provide a greater understanding of the interrelationships of disparate data. Fileless attacks, use of IOT and IIOT vulnerabilities will increase further, and even blind spots in machine learning will be exploited.  And its already clear that the many not ready for GDPR can expect a rude awakening.

Many issues relate to various categories, but only appear in one, even though they could equally have been put in another category.

AI/Machine learning/Automation


“Automation will continue at a faster pace than ever before in human history.  The real information revolution is happening now, and the robots are winning.  Our politics are now infested with disaffected and displaced low-skill humans who have become obsolete.  That situation will get worse as more people are automated right out of the economy.  The Luddite backlash is here again! The economy will change.” Gary McGraw vice president of security technology at Synopsys


"In 2018, advanced malware will utilise machine learning for improved potency and delivery. In response, many organisations will deploy email filtering, malicious URL detection, machine learning threat protection, and take steps to train employees on these risks. Failure to proactively defend against futuristic forms of malware will prove disastrous for many firms.” Rich Campagna, CEO at Bitglass


“Data management will get a major IQ boost from analytics. We'll begin to see advancements in analytics that move the traditional archiving, backup and storage conversation far beyond “add more capacity.” Expect new data valuation techniques to get a boost from AI to reshape information lifecycle management through the automation of policy enforcement and more intelligent data management actions. Organisations will also tap into their traditional repositories to unleash insights that power new discoveries, sales initiatives and customer experiences across a wide array of verticals.” Zachary Bosin, director of solution marketing at Veritas Technologies


“With the escalating number of cyber-attacks and limited resources to fight them, expect to see organisations start to automate as many cyber-security functions as possible during 2018. ML, AI and outsourcing will be used to do much of the heavy lifting, freeing human cyber teams to focus on things that can't be fully automated.” Giovanni Vigna, co-founder and CTO, Lastline


“Machine learning lets computers learn by being fed loads of data. This means that machine learning can only be as good and accurate as the context it gets from its sources. Going into the future, machine learning will be a key component of security solutions. While it uncovers a lot of potential for more accurate and targeted decision-making, it poses an important question: Can machine learning be outwitted by malware?  We've found that the CERBER ransomware uses a loader that certain machine learning solutions aren't able to detect because of how the malware is packaged to not look malicious. This is especially problematic for software that employs pre-execution machine learning (which analyses files without any execution or emulation), as in the case of the UIWIX ransomware (a WannaCry copycat), where there was no file for pre-execution machine learning to detect and block.


“While researchers are already looking into the possibilities of machine learning in monitoring traffic andidentifying possible zero-day exploits, it is not far-fetched to conjecture that cyber-criminals will use the same capability to get ahead of finding the zero-days themselves. It is also possible to deceive machine learning engines, as shown in the slight manipulation of road signs that were recognised differently by autonomous cars. Researchers have already demonstrated how machine learning models have blind spots that adversaries can probe for exploitation." Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro


“Attackers may start to leverage AI to evade detection and build more effective attacks. We've already witnessed machine learning being used by cyber-criminals to evade detection, and the use of AI is becoming increasingly widespread. Given the volume of data available online, AI can be used to build more targeted attacks by learning about and interacting with potential victims. On the flipside, AI will also help inform and automate security responses and reduce the incident response time.” James Maude, senior security engineer at Avecto


“Automation by its very definition involves software.  In some sense software is eating jobs at an alarming rate, replacing people with bits.  Politics involves more software than ever. Even determining what the limits of our software should be turns out to be a thorny issue.  We will always need more than the ten million or so people working on software today to help us keep it under control and functioning in our favour as a species.  Women have been involved in software since Lady Ada Lovelace dreamed the whole thing up.  Software. Software Software.” Gary McGraw vice president of security technology at Synopsys


“Malware campaigns will use AI to make secondary infection decisions based on learning from previous campaigns."Gary Hayslip, chief information security officer, Webroot


“2018 tax season will see more fraudulent returns than ever – driven largely by the Equifax breach affecting 145.5 million people. Fake tax returns will likely explode this year given all the Social Security numbers now exposed.”Christopher Skinner, CEO, SpiderOak


Artificial Intelligence (AI) & Machine Learning (ML) [will be used] by cyber criminals to conduct attacks. It is the first year where we will see AI versus AI in a cyber-security context. Cyber criminals will use AI to attack and explore victims' networks, which is typically the most labour-intensive part of compromise after an incursion.” Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec


“More criminals will use AI and machine learning to conduct their crimes. Ransomware will be automatic, bank theft will be conducted by organised gangs using machine learning to conduct their attacks in more intelligent ways, and smaller groups of criminals will be able to cause greater damage by using these new technologies to breach companies and steal data. We will experience a growth in crime "blasts" that are followed by second waves. For example, if the initial blast was the theft of Equifax customer data, the second wave will be when that data is used by criminals to create synthetic identities and steal money from real people. More large organisations and enterprises will turn to AI to detect and protect against new sophisticated threats.” Mark Gazit, CEO of ThetaRay


“Cyber-crime's impact will be huge in 2018. The ever-increasing attack surface is already so large that the limited cyber-security resources found in most organisations are unable to keep up with the onslaught.  The continued rise in cyber-crime will be met with advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning as emerging methods to counteract attacks. These defence mechanisms are expected to continue to emerge throughout the New Year.”Giovanni Vigna, co-founder and CTO, Lastline


“Further adoption of AI leading to automation of professions similar to Insurance underwriters, tax clerk and credit analysts. Also, AI will begin to move into the forefront for social engineering, to quickly highlight susceptible targets for adversarial attacks.” Paul Barnes, senior director product strategy, Webroot


“Supply chain and third party attacks will continue to be a fruitful attack method for cyber-criminals in the next year. These tend to be highly focused operations with predetermined targets of interest, rather than cases of mass, indiscriminate targeting. Suppliers and third parties are often seen as easier entry points for attackers, especially as many do not have adequate security maturity levels. Moreover, suppliers are often given unnecessary wholesale access to company networks, which is why they are targeted in the first place.” Alastair Paterson, CEO & co-founder, Digital Shadows




“2017 saw an increased amount of malware attacking the firmware and memory of hardware devices like disk controllers, fingerprint sensors, and computer cameras. As most malware detection products can't identify malware on hardware, expect hackers to increasingly turn to this type of attack during 2018.” Giovanni Vigna, co-founder and CTO, Lastline


“We predict that Business Email Compromise (BEC) incidents will only multiply in 2018, leading to more than US$ 9 billion* in global losses. This hike in the projected reported losses will be brought on partly by a growing awareness around BEC and the tactics used, which will result in better identification and increased reporting of the scams. Mainly, it will be rooted in how BEC scams bank on phishing approaches that time and again have proved to be effective. We will continue to see BEC scams that involve company executives being impersonated to wire sums of money.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


“File-less and file-light malware will explode. With fewer Indicators of Compromise (IoC), use of the victims' own tools, and complex disjointed behaviours, these threats have been harder to stop, track and defend against in many scenarios. More cyber criminals are now rushing to use these same techniques. Although file-less and file-light malware will still be smaller by orders-of-magnitude compared to traditional-style malware, they will pose a significant threat and lead to an explosion in 2018.”  Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec


“Security solutions will broaden their scope to consume events system wide vs per-process and per-thread level detection to capture disjointed attacks such as multi-processed ransomware.” Eric Klonowski, senior advanced threat research analyst Webroot


“Stealthy ‘fileless' attacks will increase (malicious scripts that hijack legitimate software, without installing themselves). Organisations will need to move to next generation of defences. The focus will likely be on less protected industries outside of Financial Services as we have seen that with Forever 21 and the recent Jewson attacks in the UK.” Travis Farral, director of security strategy at Anomali


“In 2018, we will see more attacks that “live off the land” to exploit applications and functionality that are built into operating systems.”  James Maude, senior security engineer at Avecto


“[Although] the move to mobile, application-based banking has curtailed some of the effectiveness [of Financial Trojans], cybercriminals are quickly moving their attacks to these platforms. Cyber criminals' profits from Financial Trojans is expected to grow, giving them higher gains as compared to Ransomware attacks.” Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec


“The age of programmable malware will rise - with malware kits able to morph their purposes depending on the intent of those who launch them.  The same "shell" code will be able to launch ransomware, DOS, and email bot campaigns.” Hal Lonas, chief technology officer Webroot


“In 2018, we may see the very first attack that attempts to disrupt the integrity of patient care laboratory results or alter financial statements for a financial services company. We think about the impact of identity theft as a primary purpose, because identities have financial significance. But we rarely think as well about the potential for attacks directly against data integrity. A complete breach of confidence may result, and then we will all need to rethink how and why we connect to the internet and compute.” Wombat Security Technologies


“Spear-phishing will continue to grow as long as it continues to be successful for cyber-criminals. These attacks will continue to grow in number as well as become more sophisticated in terms of how they research and target their victims. In 2018, there will be a large increase of multi-stage spear phishing attacks that involve multiple steps, research and reconnaissance on behalf of the attacker targeting a small number of targets for very large pay outs. Cyber-criminals are now taking an “enterprise” approach.  Similar to B2B enterprise sales, they go after a smaller number of targets, with the goal of extracting a much greater payload with highly personalised attacks. The latest iteration in social engineering involves multiple steps. Organisations will have to invest in cutting edge tools and tactics in order to thwart spear phishing attackers. AI for real-time spear phishing defense offers some of the best hope in stopping these cyber-criminals in their tracks.” Asaf Cidon, vice president content security, Barracuda


“[Reliant on social engineering, for] cyber-criminals who are willing to do the long con: Business Process Compromise (BPC) [whereby] cyber-criminals learn the inner workings of the organisation, particularly in the financial department, with the aim of modifying internal processes (possibly via corporate supply chain vulnerabilities) and hitting the mother lode. Given that it requires long-term planning and more work, BPC is less likely to make headlines in 2018, unlike the much simpler BEC.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


“In 2017, Android surpassed Microsoft as the world's most popular operating system, giving cybercriminals a good reason to expand their number of attack points. To countless Microsoft and Android platforms add the strong growth of iOS-based systems and billions of new Internet-connected devices, and the resulting expanded attack surface is so extensive it's hard to fathom.”Giovanni Vigna, co-founder and CTO, Lastline


“We will see the first prolific script-based ransomware.  Malware will move away from PE (portable executable files) and into shell codes and other avenues of attack.  Authors will try to infect users outside of PE files.” Eric Klonowski, senior advanced threat research analyst, Webroot“Supply chain attacks are now moving into the mainstream of cyber-crime. With publicly available information on technology, suppliers, contractors, partnerships and key personnel, cyber criminals can find and attack weak links in the supply chain. With a number of high-profile, successful attacks in 2016 and 2017, cyber criminals will focus on this method in 2018.” Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec


“We will see more legitimate software being poisoned by groups targeting wider victim profiles and geographies, with the added advantage that such attacks are extremely hard to spot and mitigate. Other hard-to-block attacks, such as those involving high-end mobile malware are also set to rise as attackers resort to new tricks to breach increasingly well protected targets.” Kaspersky Lab


“Domain spoofing will continue to grow through 2018.  Spoofing is often the beginning of a multi-stage strategy to steal data and commit fraud with organisations that is quickly becoming the costliest cyber-attacks out there today. Brand hijacking in both emails and spoofed websites will only continue to grow in the next year, and both companies and consumers need to be on the guard, educated and ready for these threats to come around.” Fleming Shi, SVP of technology, Barracuda


“Wormable malware - I expect malware modified with self-replicating capabilities to continue in 2018, particularly given the disruption caused by WannaCry and NotPetya inspiring similar attacks. Another driver for this is that many organisations around the world will be slow to mitigate against these methods, whether by applying appropriate patches and updates, restricting communication between workstations, and disabling features such as SMB to reduce the capability of malware to propagate within organisation networks. The bar for cyber-attacks keeps getting lower. The availability of leaked tools from the NSA and HackingTeam, coupled with ‘how to' manuals, means that threat actors will have access to powerful tools that they can iterate from and leverage to aggressively accomplish their goals.” Alastair Paterson, CEO & co-founder, Digital Shadows


“Software updates – the new Trojan Horse. Criminals are using the normal software update process to get companies to infect all of their clients, which then affects everyone down their software supply chain. This is the kind of breach that destroys trust between users and software providers and makes consumers want to avoid doing business with the provider in the future.” Christopher Skinner, CEO, SpiderOak


Incidents like the WannaCry attack are just the warmup to a New Year of more virulent malware and DDoS attacks. Attackers will use machine learning and artificial intelligence to launch even more potent attacks. Meanwhile, cyber-criminals are poised to step up their attacks on the millions of devices now connected to the Internet of Things both in offices and homes.”  Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec


“Phishing will remain by far the most dangerous method for a cyber-attack. Smishing will become a more successful and prominent vector for cyber-attacks, but the very prevalent and dangerous email phish – which comes in many forms – will persist as the most common vector for cyber-attacks. We will see more ransomware attacks, more identity theft, and more large (and even multi-national) data breaches that will begin with a simple phish. Though it wouldn't be surprising to see the overall volume of phishing emails decrease, the increasingly sophisticated nature of these attacks will result in higher failure rates with uneducated users.” Wombat Security Technologies


We have seen a stark increase in email attacks that impersonate secure messages from financial institutions. These fake “secure messages” carry malicious content and malware for download.These attacks are very difficult to spot by end users as the email domains used in this attack are designed to look like real emails that customers might receive from an actual bank. The volume of these attacks is rapidly increasing, so plan to see more of these fake secure messages in the coming year.” Fleming Shi, SVP of Technology, Barracuda




"In 2018, sales and marketers will find a differentiation story in ...their company's approach to risk and cyber security... security programs will ...become sales tools in their own right. In order to add validity to existing security practices and back up the marketing message, we will see a sharp rise in the use of third party risk evaluations.”Stephen Moore, chief security strategist at Exabeam




“As we continue to see greater improvement in the resilience of the technology, we can expect to see blockchain being increasingly applied to more and more processes in 2018.  Blockchain should be seen as a welcome new addition to the Cyber-security solutions available to business!” Andy Powell, VP and Head of Cybersecurity at Capgemini


“The increasing use of virtual currency also creates an excellent opportunity for criminals, so we will likely see the world of fraud and money laundering combining with that of blockchain and cryptocurrency.”  Mark Gazit, CEO of ThetaRay


“Adoption of the decentralised ledger [blockchain]  is projected to be widespread in five to 10 years. Currently, however, many initiatives are already being built on blockchain, ranging from technology and finance industry startups and giants to entire governments – all with the goal of revolutionising business models. The more transfers there are, the more the series becomes complex and obfuscated. This obfuscation, likewise, can be seen as an opportunity by cyber-criminals looking into enhancing their attack vectors. They have already managed to target the blockchain in the Ethereum DAO hack, which led to over US$50 million worth of digital currency lost.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


“Bitcoin will be outlawed by many governments to avoid the financial ‘bubbles' and ultimately fraud we've seen in the past – untraceable money is in no one's interest except criminals.” George Anderson, director of product marketing, Webroot


“Adoption of the decentralised ledger [blockchain]  is projected to be widespread in five to 10 years. Currently, however, many initiatives are already being built on blockchain, ranging from technology and finance industry startups and giants to entire governments – all with the goal of revolutionising business models. The more transfers there are, the more the series becomes complex and obfuscated. This obfuscation, likewise, can be seen as an opportunity by cyber-criminals looking into enhancing their attack vectors. They have already managed to target the blockchain in the Ethereum DAO hack, which led to over US$50 million worth of digital currency lost.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  

“Blockchain-based technology will receive wider adoption in the security industry, especially in large corporations looking to secure any type of ledger as well as in IoT device security. It remains to be seen what exactly the endgame of blockchain will be, but it surely has promise for corporations big and small.” Nir Gaist, founder and CTO of Nyotron.

“Cryptocurrency mining will become one of the major monetisation avenues for attackers as more and more attacks and malware include mining functionality to generate revenue. In particular a focus will be on in-browser mining that will be the result of website attacks." Travis Farral, director of security strategy at Anomali

“Another major breach on Cryptocurrency exchange will lead to substantial decline in Bitcoin value and other major cryptocurrencies, further government involvement will be seen with regulations beginning to form to remove some of the original core principles around anonymity to reduce fraudulent use. Banks will be first to create a regulated currency followed by Russia and China and possibly followed by the big five tech companies – Apple (augment ApplePay), Google (augment Android Pay), Amazon, Facebook and Microsoft.” Paul Barnes, senior director product strategy, Webroot

“Blockchain is finally finding applications outside of crypto-currencies, expanding to inter-bank settlements, fuelled by increasing traction in IoT. However, these use cases are still in their infancy and are not the focus for most cyber-criminals today. Instead of attacking Blockchain technology itself, cyber-criminals will focus on compromising coin-exchanges and users' coin-wallets since these are the easiest targets, and provide high returns. Victims will also be tricked into installing coin-miners on their computers and mobile devices, handing their CPU and electricity over to cyber-criminals.”  Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec




“Breach fatigue. A real problem with all the bad news we see about hacks and leaks and breaches is that we're becoming desensitised to then. It's easy for employees to get complacent, and the consequences of this can be extremely harmful to a business.” Christopher Skinner, CEO, SpiderOak


“At least three  separate breaches of at least 100 million accounts. I bet the data is already breached as of right now, but the organisation is unaware and will learn next year.” Tyler Moffitt, Senior Threat Research Analyst, Webroot


“Instead of focusing primarily on breach prevention, organisations will begin in earnest to invest in breach containment and rapid recovery to beef up resiliency. These tools will quickly detect breaches, isolate infected assets and network segments, and rapidly restore damaged data and systems.” Giovanni Vigna, co-founder and CTO, Lastline


“We anticipate Equifax's loss (US$ 3 billion) will be dwarfed in 2018, with a global 500 business losing over US$ 5 billion in market capitalisation following a successful exploit.” Derek Weeks, VP and DevOps advocate Sonatype


“Organisations will still struggle with Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) security [which] offers massive benefits in agility, scalability, innovation and security [but] also introduces significant risks, with simple errors that can expose massive amount of data and take down entire systems. While security controls above the IaaS layer are a customer's responsibility, traditional controls do not map well to these new cloud-based environments – leading to confusion, errors and design issues with ineffective or inappropriate controls being applied, while new controls are ignored. This will lead to more breaches throughout 2018 as organizations struggle to shift their security programs to be IaaS effective.”  Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec




“2018 will bring the first truly massive hack of one of the three largest public cloud providers - Amazon (AWS), Microsoft (Azure) or Google (GCP). A breach of this size could result in a temporary slowdown of cloud adoption worldwide. Organisations should not forget that cloud security is based on the shared responsibility model and none of the layers are completely impenetrable.” Nir Gaist, founder and CTO of Nyotron


“IT will be forced to take responsibility for cloud data management and cut costs. In 2017, 69 percent of organisations wrongfully believed data protection, data privacy and compliance were the responsibility of the cloud service provider, significantly increasing the likelihood of data breaches. In 2018 IT will find out they are responsible for management in the cloud – possibly through a breach – and the CFO will demand cuts to  infrastructure costs.”Zachary Bosin, director of solution marketing at Veritas Technologies


“Companies are increasingly adopting both cloud and hyper-converged infrastructure (HCI) to enable further automation of their application environments. This trend will accelerate in 2018 as we continue to slim down hardware and deploy software solutions that do the heavy-lifting. HCI is an efficient, cost-effective way to integrate IT functions into a streamlined stack.  The new year will usher in a new age in HCI in key areas.”

“HCI vendors will make it easier to leverage clouds, especially for workload mobility and disaster recovery. Organisations will easily move applications from data centers to clouds. They will shift them on a real-time basis to the most optimal resource. The majority of HCI systems will be all-flash rather than hybrid configurations. The HCI vendor landscape will consolidate. The ecosystem will start to consolidate via acquisition or changes in strategy." Jason Lochhead, CTO, Cyxtera Technologies




“Security and politics will become an even thornier morass. Facebook and Twitter will have to take responsibility for the abuse of their platforms. Technology providers can no longer pretend that the tools they made are “just tools” without any moral or ethical implications.  As we learn more about information warfare, propaganda, and modern social networks, we'll need to make some adjustments.

CRYPTO will be painted as the enemy of security instead of as its saviour.  Public figures who have no business even saying the word “crypto” will attempt to thwart math and engineering with empty political words.  We will need to defend strong crypto again in Crypto War III.” Gary McGraw vice president of security technology at Synopsys


“Cryptowars have re-emerged with governments, policy makers, law enforcement, technology companies, telcos, advertisers, content providers, privacy bodies, human rights organisations and pretty much everyone expressing different opinions on how encryption should be used, broken, circumvented or applied. The war will continue to be fought on a mostly privacy versus government surveillance basis, particularly for device and communications (email and messaging) encryption. Beyond that, though, expect to see content providers, telcos and advertisers influencing much of the adoption of transport layer encryption, as it's often viewed as being at odds with their business models.”  Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec




“Expect to see a dramatic increase in sophistication among cyber-criminals, even entry and mid-level hackers, as they leverage AI and ML-powered hacking kits built from tools that criminals leaked or stole from state-sponsored intelligence agencies.” Giovanni Vigna, co-founder and CTO, Lastline


“Aside from performing DDoS attacks, cyber-criminals will turn to IoT devices for creating proxies to obfuscate their location and web traffic, considering that law enforcement usually refers to IP addresses and logs for criminal investigation and post-infection forensics. Amassing a large network of anonymised devices (running on default credentials no less and having virtually no logs) could serve as jumping-off points for cyber-criminals to surreptitiously facilitate their activities within the compromised network.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


Data/Data Breaches


“Data will grow exponentially, but data storage will slow for the first time. Last year, the annual data growth rate skyrocketed to 48.7 percent. More than 50 percent of files being stored by organisations were of “unknown” nature. In 2018, we'll see successful companies shift their storage strategies from a “save-it-all” mentality to one that identifies and stores data that provides valuable insights or mission critical information.” Zachary Bosin, director of solution marketing at Veritas Technologies




“Users and enterprises can stay resilient against digital extortion attempts by employing effective web and email gateway solutions as a first line of defence. Solutions with high-fidelity machine learning, behaviour monitoring, and vulnerability shielding prevent threats from getting through to the target. These capabilities are especially beneficial in the case of ransomware variants that are seen moving toward fileless delivery, in which there are no malicious payloads or binaries for traditional solutions to detect.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


“Google will block all insecure websites from being indexed and loading into browsers, with additional security checks on websites to ensure security. Also, the continued adoption of certificate pinning will mean that content inspection services will be less effective and DNS based web security will be primary.” Paul Barnes, senior director product strategy, Webroot


"2018 will see cyber-security-related services dramatically increase, especially around threat analytics.  In the past, only the largest companies could afford to invest in the procurement, management and maintenance of threat analytics services (TAS), but now they are becoming readily available to customers on demand for whatever purpose needed.” Christopher Steffen, CISSP, CISA, technical director, Cyxtera Technologies.




“....convergence of DevOps and automated security controls, to make SecDevOps a fundamental element of digital transformation….New technologies and design methods now allow the automation of security controls so that they can be used during the DevOps cycle rather than at the end, result.” Andy Powell, VP and Head of Cybersecurity at Capgemini


“In 2018, CISOs will come to view DevSecOps as one of their top three investment priorities. Businesses are now recognising that security is too important to be an afterthought, and so truly mitigate risks in the New Year, security will be designed in from the beginning, and software continuously monitored throughout its lifecycle.” Derek Weeks, VP and DevOps Advocate, Sonatype


“The agile, DevOps and DevSecOps movements are transforming IT and cyber-security operations in every organisation. With improved speed, greater efficiencies and more responsive delivery of IT services, this is quickly becoming the new normal. While all this works to the greater good, like any disruptive change, it offers opportunities not only for errors, but also for attackers to exploit. Much like the issues facing the move to SaaS and IaaS, organisations are struggling to apply security controls in these new models of CI/CD and automation. As environments change constantly, anomaly detection gets harder, with many existing systems creating far too many false positives to be effectively dealt with. In the next year, we'll see a greater number of attackers taking advantage of this to cover their activities inside a victim's environment.”  Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec




“The return of mega DDoS attacks via IoT powered botnets is likely in 2018. The next wave could potentially affect large swathes of Internet services either by design or as collateral damage from another entity being hit due to the sheer size of the attack. The wide attack surface of IoT devices makes them particularly attractive for botnets. This malicious activity will be for political advantage as well as monetary gain. Ransomware and DDoS attacks are likely to get more targeted in the way that phishing evolved into spear phishing attacks.” Travis Farral, director of security strategy at Anomali




“Spending on IT security is expected to rise in 2018. Spiceworks State of IT report says, 69 percent of European companies will use advanced security solutions, such as encryption, breach detection, and biometrics, by the end of 2018.” Peter Tsai, senior technology analyst, Spiceworks




“The likes of NSC and GCHQ ... need to move faster and cannot be limited to cyber-crime. There must also be a focus on state sponsored, hacktivism and other sophisticated attacks, and levels of awareness and associated education should be increased concurrently. Such government groups cannot defend alone, and should collaborate more with organisations themselves, as well as private groups such as the Cyber Defence Alliance and FS-ISAC, and continue to drive closed and industry collaboration." Travis Farral, director of security strategy at Anomali


“Discoveries of election meddling and social media tweaking will be an economic drag on some of the biggest tech giants in the industry - and be cause for further scrutiny on securing devices, networks, and communications channels and verifying identity.  The tradeoffs between free speech and open digital access and convenience will become ever more apparent.” Hal Lonas, chief technology officer, Webroot


“Cyber-propaganda campaigns will be refined using tried-and-tested techniques from past spam campaigns. It is likely that the upcoming Swedish general election will not be exempt from attempts to influence the voting outcome through fake news. The interest will also be hot on the heels of the U.S. midterm elections, as social media can be wielded to amplify divisive messages, as in the alleged meddling in the previous U.S. presidential election and the “troll farm” behind a Twitter influencer. Social media sites, most notably Google and Facebook, have already pledged a crackdown on bogus stories propagating across feeds and groups, but it has had little impact so far.”  Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro




“Laggards will fully heed the brunt of GDPR only when the retributions are imposed by the regulators. Data privacy watchdogs can interfere with business operations by altogether banning companies from processing certain data. There is also the possibility that lawsuits, both from the authorities and from the citizens themselves, will come into the picture.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro


“We may see an increase in ransom and extortion attacks relating to GDPR (and perhaps other regulations) as attackers seek to capitalise on a potential fear of large fines.” FireEye


“GDPR compliance will be a major hurdle for three quarters of organisations….because they don't have a complete understanding of the project level tasks and processes needed for GDPR compliance.  [However], GDPR will become a business opportunity rather than an additional regulatory burden in 2018, as it drives a host of efficiencies that can be applied to a number of use cases; customer 360, fraud, AML, Churn and NBNI, for example.” Abhas Ricky, director of strategy & innovation at Hortonworks


“In organisations with smaller IT and security teams, this [GDPR] may be a drain on already limited resources and cause them to take their eye off the ball as they focus on data mapping and policy work. Those who have not planned or budgeted for this extra workload will suffer the most, and may unintentionally expose the business to risk through gaps in their security strategy. We will also see a lot of consultants ambulance-chasing with organisations desperate to get their houses in order as GDPR becomes the new Y2K bug.” James Maude, senior security engineer at Avecto


“[GDPR compliance] means increased spending on access control solutions. As businesses attempt to avoid massive fines, more cyber-security investments will be needed and organisations will have to work overtime to secure their data.” Eitan Bremler, VP of Product at Safe-T


“One of the first companies to be fined under the GDPR will be in the US. Despite the impending deadline (May 25, 2018), only 31 percent of companies surveyed by Veritas worldwide believe they are GDPR compliant. Penalties for non-compliance are steep and this regulation will impact every and any company that deals with EU citizens.” Zachary Bosin, director of solution marketing at Veritas Technologies


“We expect cases of biohacking, via wearables and medical devices, to materialise in 2018. Biometric activity trackers such as heart rate monitors and fitness bands can be intercepted to gather information about the users. Even life-sustaining pacemakers have been found with vulnerabilities that can be exploited for potentially fatal attacks.”  Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


“Businesses will scramble to prepare for GDPR at the last minute. Adding to the problem, many organisations in the United States assume the European regulations don't apply to them. according to a 2017 study, 40 percent of UK organisations had begun preparations for GDPR compared to only 28 percent in the rest of the EU. Spiceworks research indicates that only 31 percent of US-based companies have allocated any money towards preparations. Europe fares slightly better, with 56 percent of organisations allocating funds towards GDPR.” Peter Tsai, senior technology analyst, Spiceworks


“[Following GDPR] Other regions will have to catch up with their data regulations by having a similar framework of wide-ranging scope and tougher penalties for compliance failure. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has already recognised several European drug regulatory authorities to improve its inspections. Australia is gearing up to enact its own data breach notification laws based on the Privacy Amendment (Notifiable Data Breaches) Act 2017, while UK'sData Protection Bill is getting updated to match EU's laws after Brexit. Meanwhile, the EU-U.S. Privacy Shield deal will have to prove how binding it is in spite of concerns expressed by the EU.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro


“2018 will see major a major backlash (maybe class action lawsuits) from consumers, requiring more regulations around data protection especially in the US.” David Kennerley, director of threat research, Webroot


“Extortion will also come into play when GDPR gets imposed. Cyber-criminals could target private data covered by the regulation and ask companies to pay an extortion fee rather than risk punitive fines of up to four percent of their annual turnover. Companies will have ransom prices associated with them that cyber-criminals can determine by taking publicly available financial details and working out the respective maximum GDPR fines the companies could face. This will drive an increase in breach attempts and ransom demands. Moreover, we expect GDPR to be used as a social engineering tactic in the same way that copyright violations and police warningswere used in past FAKEAV and ransomware campaigns.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


“In 2018, we expect to see the first US$ 10 million penalty imposed for violating GDPR. [GDPR] will drive a fundamental shift in how businesses approach security. CIOs will invest more in tools, processes, and training that integrate security practices into the design and build phases of their software development to avoid damaging breaches and minimise the risk of fines. New security investments will shift from the perimeter to the application development.  CIOs will l enhance application layer defences under their direct control.” Derek Weeks, VP and DevOps advocate Sonatype


“2018 brings GDPR; another potential “millennium bug” moment where a lot of hype won't lead to the catastrophe many are anticipating. Good cyber security is of course of critical importance, but it should be front of mind now and always – not just for this particular deadline.  However, the two things that are critical in breach reporting in the new legislative domain are timeliness of reporting and understanding the severity of a breach. In 2018, understanding the activity within your corporate environment at an extremely granular level, and interpreting the signals from the noise to indicate anomalous behaviour, will be more critical than ever.” Simon McCalla, CTO of Nominet


“The GDPR and NIS Directive will bring shockwaves as cases of non-compliance are revealed, with organisations facing significant fines and public scrutiny. Some companies — including those based in the US but with European customers or suppliers — will fail their mission to comply with the GDPR, and the results will be very public and very expensive. In 2018, global enterprises will need to revise their cyber missions to dedicate themselves to improved cyber-defence.” Wombat Security Technologies


Industrial IOT


“Threat actors will continue to set their sights on the energy industry and industrial control systems (ICS) in 2018. Financial threat groups are more likely to target the retail and hospitality industries. The technology industry (especially cloud providers), IT service providers, and professional services firms (law firms, accounting/audit firms) will also continue to be targeted due to the amount of concentrated data they hold.”FireEye


“People will be injured or killed in 2018 due to a cyberattack / cyberterrorism - moving beyond money and intellectual property to physical harm as the objective and outcome.  One could argue that this has already occurred with NSA leaks and been kept hush hush within nation / states, but private citizens will soon become targets.” Hal Lonas, chief technology officer, Webroot


“SCADA-based organisations that are used for physical network separation will see growth in remote locations. In order to function properly in such places, IT will need to be connected to operational technology (OT) networks. This requires  finding a new, virtual way to connect networks, and in turn, increased spending in cyber-security as more remote locations and sensors come online.” Eitan Bremler, VP of Product at Safe-T


“2018 will undoubtedly see a big increase in cyber-attacks on critical infrastructure worldwide, with phishing continuing to be a key point of entry. Therefore, end-user training on how to recognise these risks is a considerable factor in the fight against cyber-crime.” Wombat Security Technologies




“We expect that reports of drone-related accidents or collisions are only the start of it, as hackers have already been found to access computers, grab sensitive information, and hijack deliveries. Likewise, pervasive home devices such as wireless speakers and voice assistants can enable hackers to determine house locations and attempt break-ins.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro


“Everything will be on the net, both chattering away about data it is gathering and automating parts of life that we didn't even know needed to be Automated.  Security and privacy will play an important role.” Gary McGraw vice president of security technology at Synopsys


“Wannacry and its impact on production environments raised the awareness of infrastructure vulnerability.  The smarter and more connected plants of tomorrow will have an even greater attack surface. Cyber-criminals have realised that smarter targeted attacks can lead to big leverage for demanding ransom. We will certainly see several high-profile attacks aimed directly on connected machines. The sweet spot for attackers are organizations that haven't implemented a comprehensive digital security strategy and merely copy methods or tools that they already know.  New ways to cooperate between OT and IT people as well as systems are required to protect our resources from these attackers.” Wieland Alge, general manager EMEA, Barracuda


"2018 will see organisations being smarter about how they secure their IoT devices.  …. businesses know that deploying IoT devices on an existing network is dangerous.  It creates cross-contamination, expands the attack surface and exposes corporate networks to new vulnerabilities.  This is a serious threat that will need to be mitigated in 2018.  One way of addressing the issue is by deploying Software-defined Perimeter technology.”  Ken Hosac, VP IoT Strategy & Business Development at Cradlepoint


“The gold-rush mentality has not only pushed more and more cyber criminals to distribute ransomware, but also contributed to the rise of Ransomware-As-A-Service and other specialisations in the cyber-criminal underworld. These specialists are now looking to expand their attack reach by exploiting the massive increase in expensive connected home devices. Users are generally not aware of the threats to Smart TVs, smart toys and other smart appliances, making them an attractive target for cyber criminals.  Cyber-criminals [are] looking to exploit the poor security settings and lax personal management of home IoT devices. Furthermore, the inputs and sensors of these devices will also be hijacked, with attackers feeding audio, video or other faked inputs to make these devices do what they want rather than what users expect them to do.” Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec


"We will see at least one detrimental IoT ransomware attack hit the headlines. Through looking at vulnerabilities in IoT access and management that have already been disclosed and putting them in the context of other attack trends and events, we find a picture of motive and opportunity for widespread ransoming of IoT devices in the new year.”  

“Recovering from IoT ransomware ...can be difficult - to restore IoT devices to the original factory settings and remove any malicious applications from the embedded operating systems. Adversaries will also focus their assaults on critical assets, by, for example, compromising pacemakers or infusion pumps after surgery, or cars travelling in harsh climates. Victims will be so concerned with regaining control of their devices that they are highly likely to pay the ransom – possibly more than once.

“What makes these attacks all the more likely is the amount of PII in the criminal underground at present …[plus]  the disclosure of low-level vulnerabilities like KRACK. Most IoT devices won't see a patch for a long time – if they ever do.” Thomas Fischer, global security advocate at Digital Guardian


“We will see the first health-related ransomware targeting devices like pacemakers.  Instead of ransom to get your data back, it will be ransom to save your life.”  Eric Klonowski, senior advanced threat research analyst, Webroot


All verticals and companies that rely on internet connectivity to conduct business will see their cyber-risk grow in 2018. Financial services, retail, and healthcare verticals will be primary targets, because of the significant monetary gains and because previous attacks against these verticals have been so successful. Also, the greater reliance on the Internet of Things (IoT) will present new vectors for attacks. Managing vulnerabilities with IoT devices in the mix will prove more difficult than managing vulnerabilities inside a typical enterprise data center operation.” Wombat Security Technologies


“IoT insecurity will plague companies in 2018. Nearly 50 percent of businesses in Europe will use IoT technology by the end of next year [but], 48 percent of IT pros said they expect the security of IoT devices to get worse over the next 10 years.” Peter Tsai, senior technology analyst, Spiceworks


“There is an appetite to monetise the value of IoT data, but this will require much more cooperation between industry verticals and a shift in higher management mindset towards data security that encourages consumers to trust businesses to share their data.  The management of (technology supplying) vendors and solutions will be a challenge for organisations in 2018 and interoperability across the technology stack – particularly between IoT systems and tech vendors – will become vital for the growing datasets to give enterprises macro insights while meeting compliance requirements.” Abhas Ricky, director of strategy & innovation at Hortonworks


“Legislation will require IoT manufacturers to be responsible for producing products without known defects.”Gary Hayslip, chief information security officer, Webroot


"The number of these (IOT) smart objects that have some sort of network connectivity will top 200 billion by 2020 (Intel figures). ... each one of us humans will own an average of 26 of these ‘Things' by the end of this decade. [but] connected devices have the potential of becoming unintended soldiers in the new digital battlefield.

“In 2018, we will see a new wave of security solutions that are custom tailored to ensure healthy communications to and from our IoT devices. I anticipate that we will see growth in modern zero-trust security architectures, such as Software Defined Perimeter, which will deliver IoT-specific border controls. These tightly controlled (and monitored, of course) borders around our devices, combined with multi-factor authentication and strong encryption, will stave off the hackers and let our coffee pots and toasters keep their day jobs." Holland Berry, director of solutions architecture, Cyxtera Technologies


“We should anticipate more IoT vulnerabilities in the market as many, if not most, manufacturers are going to market with devices that are not secure by design. This risk will be compounded by the fact that patching IoT devices may not be as simple as patching PCs. It can take one insecure device that has not been issued a fix or updated to the latest version to become an entry point to the central network. The KRACK attack proved that even the wireless connection itself could add to the security woes. This vulnerability affects most, if not all, devices that connect to the WPA2 protocol, which then raises questions about the security of 5G technology, which is slated to sweep connected environments.” Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro



National/International/state actors


“Expect to see increased cyber-offensive operations from North Korea, and also increased activity from China, Russia, and Iran.” FireEye


“In many cases, European businesses are more willing to adopt emerging technologies than their counterparts in North America. For example, companies in Europe are nearly twice as likely to adopt VR and AI in the next year, so vigilance must be a watchword throughout the region when introducing new, potentially vulnerable new technologies into the workplace.” Peter Tsai, senior technology analyst, Spiceworks


“2018 is likely to see a destructive wiper malware affecting tens of thousands of machines at a number of large corporations, likely resulting in US$ 100 million+ (£75 million) in revenue losses. In some local cases,... driving a few smaller companies out of business completely. These attacks will be driven mostly by the bolder actions of tier 2 and tier 3 nation states (and their for-hire agents), aiming to disrupt economies of their adversaries, impact unfavourable legislation or simply create fear and uncertainty in the market and among the targeted population.” Nir Gaist, founder and CTO of Nyotron  


“If you can plug it in, you can hack it, and this puts the 2018 elections at risk. There are vulnerabilities everywhere from the storage of voter rolls to easily hackable electronic voting machines. This process starts far ahead of the election itself – it's happening now.” Christopher Skinner, CEO, SpiderOak


“We assess China may be willing and able to violate the Xi Agreement on select, high priority cases while minimising the risk of diplomatic blowback.” FireEye


“Europe needs to catch up. The US market is ... 18 months ahead of the UK and other European countries. Defence is critical, but it should be well understood that black boxes, no matter how complex, will not stop attacks. The UK and Europe need to focus less on doing ‘just enough' for compliance. Intelligence led strategies are critical.” Travis Farral, director of security strategy at Anomali





“The ransomware business model will still be a cyber-crime mainstay in 2018, while other forms of digital extortion will gain more ground. Cyber-criminals have been resorting to using compelling data as a weapon for coercing victims into paying up. With ransomware-as-a-service (RaaS) still being offered in underground forums, along with bitcoin as a secure method to collect ransom, cyber-criminals are being all the more drawn to the business model.”  Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


“We will see the first widespread worming mobile phone ransomware, perhaps spread by SMS / MMS.” Eric Klonowski, senior advanced threat research analyst, Webroot


“Attackers will continue to look for new mechanisms (like botnets) to deliver ransomware. We also expect the evolution of ransomware to “protectionware”. Cyber-criminals may evolve from demanding ransoms to unlock data to demanding payments to avoid being targeted. Email will remain the most common delivery vehicle for advanced threats [whcih] will continue to become more sophisticated. Attackers will leverage social engineering, targeted campaigns, spear phishing and whaling to steal credentials, exfiltrate data, commit business fraud and more. Web applications will be increasingly targeted by hackers to steal data and disrupt businesses.” Sanjay Ramnath, vice president global marketing, Barracuda


“Ransomware scares will be the new norm in the workplace. In a recent survey, 52 percent of IT pros told us they believe their organisation is vulnerable to ransomware, such as the recent WannaCry and Petrwrap.” Peter Tsai, senior technology analyst, Spiceworks


“Backups will not prove enough to stop ransomware as hackers find ways to subvert this strategy.” George Anderson, director of product marketing, Webroot


“In 2018, we will see more ransomware strains targeting the enterprise. Databases, websites, the Internet of Things and industrial control systems are all prime targets for ransomware, and we will likely see new malware strains targeting these systems. It's therefore crucial that the infrastructure and financial systems of these businesses become more resilient to the disruption caused by attacks that seek to compromise data.”  James Maude, senior security engineer at Avecto


“Ransomware maturity [acting] as a catalyst for digital extortion campaigns. The current success of ransomware campaigns — especially their extortion element — will prompt cybercriminals looking to make generous profits out of targeting populations that will yield the most return possible. Attackers will continue to rely on phishing campaigns where emails with ransomware payload are delivered en masse to ensure a percentage of affected users. They will also go for the bigger buck by targeting a single organisation, possibly in an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) environment, for a ransomware attack that will disrupt the operations and affect the production line. We already saw this in the fallout from the massive WannaCry and Petya outbreaks, and it won't be long until it becomes the intended impact of the threat.”  Rik Ferguson, VP security research, Trend Micro  


Also see IOT ransomware




“In 2018, organisations need to start bringing in IT resilience-minded employees and giving them a seat at the table…. it may take a dramatic escalation in attacks – that I predict is coming – for countless leadership teams to finally face the reality that attacks are inevitable. Management teams, and more importantly shareholders, need to wake up: cyber attacks are a “when”, not an “if”. Resilient IT strategies, ones that ensure data and applications are protected and recoverable to the point just before an attack occurs, will rise in popularity next year as no organisation can reduce the impact of attacks or prevent the company from being flashed in headlines with old, failed approaches. Hopefully 2018 will see real, tangible, sizeable investments in people, technology, and processes that essentially shifts their posture from easygoing and passive to one of true IT resilience.”  Rob Strechay, SVP Product at Zerto


Skills shortage/People


“...lack of cyber security skills across the UK will become increasingly apparent.  These are not only the specialist skills needed to develop and run cyber-security, but the general cyber-security education and awareness of employees needed to stem the majority of data breaches that are actually caused by carelessness!” Andy Powell, VP and Head of Cybersecurity at Capgemini


“New JOBS around the political implications of tech and tech policy will emerge.  Nobody knows what they will look like yet.  Humans will struggle to control the machines they are building faster than they can think things through.”Gary McGraw vice president of security technology at Synopsys


“A report from Frost & Sullivan and (ISC)² found that the global cyber-security workforce will have more than 1.5 million unfilled positions by 2020. Both private and state schools need strong cyber programs and academies should look to develop cyber skills in children from disadvantaged backgrounds. We need to improve opportunities for entry level positions including internships, apprenticeships, more cyber-classes in schools, and formal cyber-programmes. This also requires a look beyond STEM.” Travis Farral, director of security strategy at Anomali


“Women will continue to gain much needed ground in security.  Not enough security workers?  Hire, train, and promote women.  Lip service time is over.  Lets stop having panels about women in technology and just have some women in technology.” Gary McGraw vice president of security technology at Synopsys


“Diversity in cyber will stay static until there is Government involvement.” Gary Hayslip, chief information security officer, Webroot


“A crucial concern for the coming year is a requirement to understand the intersection of people, critical data and intellectual property. By placing cyber-behaviour and intent at the centre of security, security professionals have a fighting chance of keeping up with the technological innovation to come.” Forcepoint


“Even white collar JOBS will fall to automation (with a heaping side of machine learning).  Retool now.  Learn to code.  Become a technologist.  We'll need more techies than ever.  But don't pick a field where repetition is the main thing or processes are clearly-defined and algorithmic.” Gary McGraw vice president of security technology at Synopsys


“Protecting employees is key – if someone can hack your employees' private accounts, can they hack your enterprise? In 2018, we'll be seeing more attacks targeting social media accounts and more attacks targeting personal email accounts.” FireEye


"Rapid increase in the volume of mass ransomware threats will continue over the next 12-24 months.  The growing availability of cryptocurrencies provides the attacker with the possibility to remain anonymous while conducting mass attacks.  New cryptocurrencies that are more anonymous than Bitcoin will accelerate this trend, and the small payment sizes make it more likely that victims to pay.” Eugene Weiss, lead platform architect, Barracuda


“CISO role will become mandated for all organisations that are doing business with the [central] Government. CISO positions become more critical and move out of the CIO's shadow."  Gary Hayslip, chief information security officer, Webroot




“Organisations like the NHS who have been hit hardest this year –  will need to migrate away from their existing vulnerable software to increase the protection surrounding their most sensitive data.” Mat Clothier, CEO, CTO and founder at Cloudhouse


“We will see …. ever-expanding supply and demand for open source components being used in development, which already underpin 80 to 90 percent of applications. We expect to see developers consume over 300 billion open source and third party components, enabling them to accelerate development and businesses to maintain a competitive edge.”  Derek Weeks, VP and DevOps advocate Sonatype


"Cyber-hygiene was the problem ten years ago, five years ago, this year. I am completely confident it will be problem again in 2018. This is because enterprises find it incredibly difficult to demonstrate strong control over their cyber-hygiene and thus effectively remediate cyber security risks.  This is because the bigger the organisation, the more challenging it is to maintain these ‘basics', such as identifying their assets, updating software, patching it, running standard controls and educating the users. However, given 80 percent of all threats could be stopped by addressing this issue of cyber hygiene, it needs to continue to be a key focus for security teams around the globe." Nik Whitfield, CEO, Panaseer


“Microsoft had a great year with adoption of Windows 10 – proving that many organisations are moving their mindset towards evergreen IT. We hope to see more of the same at we head into 2017, or we'll be back here again when Windows 7 reaches end of life in 2020." Mat Clothier, CEO, CTO and founder at Cloudhouse


“With a growing understanding in the market that current software development hygiene practices are not protecting consumer interests, we expect to see an average of one lawsuit a month brought against offenders who release software with known vulnerabilities into the market.” Derek Weeks, VP and DevOps advocate Sonatype


"As the gig economy explodes, users have become the new perimeter, working from wherever they have internet access. This shift in the workforce requires a dramatic change in how cyber security professionals secure networks. User access must be granted based on context, such as identity, environmental factors and infrastructure.  Further, individuals need to authenticate first and connect second every time they want to access the network.

“A Software-Defined Perimeter provides this deep level of granular access on-premises and in the cloud. It ensures the same level of scrutiny is applied to each device and every would-be user, whether they are employees, contractors or trusted third parties. As the gig economy explodes, so too will Software-Defined Perimeter cyber security solutions."  Paul Campaniello, SVP marketing, Cyxtera Technologies


“Adoption of SaaS continues to grow at an exponential rate as organisations embark on digital transformation projects to drive business agility. This rate of change and adoption present many security challenges as access control, data control, user behaviour and data encryption vary significantly between SaaS apps. While this is not new and many of the security problems are well understood, organisations will continue to struggle with all these in 2018.” Darren Thomson, CTO EMEA for Symantec

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